Database approach provides the facility for data sharing. Many programs and users can share the same data in the database for different purposes. For example, a database that stores the data of students can also be used by Library Management Program etc. The data in the database can be accessed by using database management system.
The user can also interact with DBMS with the help of front-end. Front-end is a program that has more user-friendly interface than DBMS. In this case, the DBMS works as a back-end application. The user interacts with the front-end and the front-end application interacts with the back-end application.
Advantages of Database Approach
Some vital points of interest of database approach are as per the following:
The data in a database seems just once and isn’t copied. For example, the data of a student in college database is stored in one table. We can access this table for Different purposes. For example, if we want to store the marks of the student in a table, only Roll No of application the student will be used.
The second table will be connected to the student table for accessing underlying the information about the student as follows:
In the above figure, the details of the students are stored in Student table. The ble stores only the Roll No of the student. The remaining data is not duplicated. Roll No Marks the Marks table is duplicated for joining two tables.
A benefit of controlling redundancy is that the data is consistent. If a data item appears only at one place, it is easy to maintain it. If you need to update the data, you will update it at only one place. This change will automatically take effect at all places where this data is used.
Consistency constraints are the rules that must be followed to enter data in the database. On the off chance that a data does not satisfy these limitations, it can’t be entered in the Database management systems give a simple method to applying diverse consistency imperatives that guarantee the consistency of the data in databases. While in an ordinary file system, it is difficult to enforce such conditions. For example, the balance of a bank account may never fall below a prescribed amount.
A collection of all steps required to complete a process is known as a transaction. The atomicity means that either one transaction should take place as a whole or it should not take place at all. It ensures that the database will always have correct and consistent data. Suppose you want to transfer money from account A to account B. This process consists of two steps:
- Deduct the money from the account
- Add the money to the account
Suppose the system fails when the computer has performed the first step. It means that the amount has been deducted from account A but has not been added to a situation can make the data count B. The inconsistent Database management system either executes both steps or does not execute any step.
Data security is the protection of the database from unauthorized access. The database management system provides several procedures to maintain data security. The security is maintained by allowing access to the database through the use of passwords. Not every use of database system should be able to access all the data.
In some situations, you may want to provide different types of access permission to data for different users. For example, a data entry operator should only be allowed to enter data. The chairman of the organization should be able to access or delete the data completely Database management system provides different levels of security options for different users.
A database organizes data more efficiently than file processing system. It is easier and faster to develop programs that use this data. Many DBMS also provides several tools to assist program development. It reduces the overall time for developing applications.
The database management system stores data with compactness. It requires less storage space than the file system. So it saves storage resources and memory is not wasted.
Reports are very important part of Database applications. These are very essential for taking crucial decisions about an organization. The data in the database is stored in an organized manner. It can easily be retrieved for creating different reports. The reports can be prepared very easily and quickly in the required format in a database management system.
Once a database is developed, it can be used by several users in the organization. The database can also be shared by different applications. If a new application requires the same data, it can share the existing database instead of developing it again.
Sometimes, two or more users may access the same file simultaneously. These accesses may interfere with each other. This may result in loss of information or even loss of integrity Many DBMS manage concurrent access and ensure such problems cannot occur.
Improved Backup and Recovery:
In file-based systems, it is the responsibility of the user to protect data from failures of the computer system or application program. This may require taking backup of the data daily. If the data is lost, the backup is restored. The modern DBMS provide facilities to minimize the amount of processing that can be lost due to a failure.
Database approach provides the facility of data independence. It means that the data and the application programs are separate from each other. You can change data storage structures and operations without changing the application programs.
Disadvantages of Database Approach:
A few hindrances to database approach are as per the following::
High Cost of DBMS:
A total database management system is vast and refined programming. It is at expensive to purchase database management software.
Higher Hardware Cost:
Database management systems are complicated and heavy software. They require additional memory, processing power, and more powerful hardware.
Higher Programming Cost:
DBMS is complex software with many features. The programmers need a thorough knowledge of the system to use it to best advantage. If the organization hires experienced database programmers, it has to pay the extra cost for this expertise.
High Conversion Cost:
If an organization converts its records to database management system, data has to be converted from files to the database. It may be a difficult and time-consuming process due to the different formats used by different systems. Moreover, the structure and data may also have to be modified according to the requirements of the database management system.
More Chance of Failure:
In database management system, all resources and components are centralized. If any of these components fails, the whole system stops.
Complexity & Performance:
Database management system is general-purpose software. A complete DBMS has to perform many tasks that make it complex and complicated software. In some applications, DBMS may run less efficiently as compared to file processing system.